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Penulis Topik: hormon estrogen dan testosteron  (Dibaca 14077 kali)

0 Anggota dan 1 Pengunjung sedang melihat topik ini.

Offline alf

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hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« pada: Mei 03, 2009, 05:05:14 PM »
hormon estrogen dan testosteron sebenarnya sama-sama dimiliki wanita dan pria. hanya saja kadarnya yang berbeda. jika pada pria hormon testosteron yang dominan sedangkan pada wanita hormon estrogen yang lebih dominan. kedua hormon ini berfungsi untuk mempengaruhi tanda-tanda seksual sekunder.
pertanyaannya, jika seseorang yang tomboy atau yang terlihat berperilaku seperti cewek, apakah hal itu ada hubungannya dengan keseimbangan kedua hormon tersebut dalam tubuh seseorang???
apakah yang menyebabkan seseorang dapat menjadi tomboy atau berperilaku seperti perempuan???



Offline syx

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #1 pada: Mei 04, 2009, 06:51:42 AM »
ga ada... kecuali emang ada ciri fisik yg keluar, misalnya tumbuhnya payudara pada pria.

Offline Muztank

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #2 pada: Mei 04, 2009, 01:01:23 PM »
kalau prilaku... itu brarti pengaruh dari sisi psikologinya..
misalnya..
seorang wanita yang berprilaku seperti pria, potong rambut sperti pria dsb,
stelah ditlusuri. ternyata lingkungan sehari-hari wanita tersebut yang mempengaruhi...
salah satu faktornya ini..

klo kaya dari sisi fisiknya baru dari hormon..
sperti yang di sebutkan syx td..sperti tumbuh jakun dsb..

Offline biobio

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #3 pada: Mei 04, 2009, 03:32:30 PM »
Ada juga kelainan kromosom seperti perempuan mestinya XX jadi X atau XXX, sedangkan pria XY bisa jadi XXY, dan XYY. Kemungkinan besar juga memainkan peranan tertentu dalam sifat, terutama kelainan yang gak lethal.
"The pen is mightier than the sword"
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST)
The University of Tokyo. 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Offline milmi

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #4 pada: Mei 05, 2009, 11:02:47 AM »
@alf, isi buku tamu dulu, supaya bisa kenalan dengan yang lain.
Kalau menilik apa yang menjadi pertanyaan dalam topik ini, sebenarnya bukanlah masahal hormon, namun lebih ke arah masalah orientasi seksual. Sayangnya alf langsung menjudge bahwa konsentrasi 2 dari sekian banyak hormon seksual, estrogen (E1) dan testosteron (T), yang mempengaruhinya. Nah, jawaban yang sebenarnya masih banyak mengundang kontroversi, namun ada baiknya kalau disimak tulisan berikut:

Sexual Orientation

Dr. C. George Boeree

The roots of homosexuality are still a mystery -- although only a little more a mystery than the origins of heterosexuality!  Like almost everything, it is likely to involve both genetic-physiological roots and cultural-learning roots.  Here are some of the possible factors:

First, there may be genetic foundations for homosexuality.  J. Michael Bailey and Richard C. Pillard, for example, discovered that 52% of the identical twins of male homosexuals were also homosexual, compared to only 22% of non-identical twins.  Likewise, they found that if one identical twin is lesbian, in almost 50% of the cases studied, the other twin is lesbian as well, in comparison to 16% of the non-identical twins.

People always ask:  If homosexuality is genetic, how does it get passed on to future generations?  Homosexuals do have children, of course, but at a considerably lower rate than do heterosexuals.  So why hasn't it "evolved out" of us?  There are a number of possibilities, but the most obvious one is that the genes responsible for sexual orientation are similar to those simpler genes that account for sickle-cell anemia:  If you have a sickle-cell gene from mom and a sickle-cell gene from dad, then you will get sickle-cell anemia, a deadly disease.  But the sickle-cell gene remains a part of the population because, if you only have one of them you will be more resistant to malaria!

In the same way, if you inherit a "full dose" of genes for homosexuality, you may be less likely to reproduce.  But a "half dose" may actually make you more likely to survive and reproduce.  Women with some characteristics more associated with men (men's assertiveness, perhaps?) may do better than their more feminine sisters.  Likewise, men with some characteristics of women (perhaps more affection for their children?) may do better than their macho brothers.

Even with a genetic component to homosexuality, we need to understand that genes are only responsible for the making of proteins, and we still need to explain how a protein can influence our sexual behaviors.  One fruitful path is, naturally, the "sex hormones," especially testosterone and estrogen.

Estrogen, the female hormone, is the default hormone:  If testosterone is not present in a developing fetus, it will develop into a girl, whether it actually has the genetics of a female or not.  On the other hand, if testosterone is somehow added to the developing fetus, it will develop testes, a penis, and so on, even if it has the DNA of a female!  There are certain circumstances where these events occur, even in human beings.

Both men and women have testosterone -- it is crucial to growth -- but men have something on the order of 100 times the amount.  In rats and mice, low levels tend to be associated with lordosis, which is the technical term for the sexual posture that female animals tend to take.  High levels in animals is associated with a tendency to mount other animals.

Men with higher levels of testosterone tend to have a more masculine appearance, tend to behave in a more masculine fashion, and tend to be more aggressive.  Men with less testosterone tend to look and act somewhat more like women, and women with more testosterone than other women tend to look and act somewhat more like men.  However, there is no overpowering connection between testosterone levels and homosexuality in human beings:  Researchers have found no differences between male homosexuals and heterosexuals when it comes to how much testosterone is circulating in their blood.  Apparently, our sexual orientation is a bit more complicated than that of rats and mice!

Some other studies suggest that there are differences in the way that men and women respond to estrogen:  Women respond by producing more of a pituitary hormone called luteinizing hormone or LH.  Men do not.  But homosexual men responded more like women, which suggests that homosexual men have a more "female" hypothalamus.  We would then expect that lesbians would have a more "male" response, but that is not the case.  In fact, they respond with even more production of LH than heterosexual women do -- as if they were more "feminine" rather than less!  This suggests that homosexuality works differently in men and women.

There have been studies of brain structures, looking for differences between men and women and between heterosexuals and homosexuals.  Some small differences have been tentatively identified, but the research is still only in its early stages.  And we have no way yet of knowing if these differences cause the hormonal differences, or are caused by them!


To be continued....
...setetes air di samudera luas...

Offline milmi

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #5 pada: Mei 05, 2009, 11:06:11 AM »
lanjutan post sebelumnya...

Still, the argument that at least a good portion of our sexual orientation is biological is hard to deny.  Homosexuals often say that they have felt an attraction to the same sex as long as they can remember.  And studies by Martha McClintock and Gilbert Herdt show that both homosexuals and heterosexuals develop attractions to the same or opposite sex at around the age of ten, two or three years before they begin developing the clearer signs of puberty.  With heterosexuality our clear cultural norm, we should not see any same-sex attraction if it were only a learned behavior!  Instead, we see somewhere between 3 and 10% of the population considering themselves homosexual.  (The figures are so ambivalent, no doubt because of that cultural norm!)

The relationship between an instinct and upbringing is a matter of imprinting:  The precise nature of a complex stimulus is usually not directly supplied in the genetic programming of the brain.  It is more efficient to program the brain to attach an instinctual response to a stimulus while experiencing that stimulus. So goslings follow the first large moving object they see, to use the classic example.  There is also a critical period involved during which this imprinting occurs.  For geese, this is a matter of a couple of days.

Freud’s theorizing about sexual orientation is basically the same as this.  During a critical period -- which he felt was between the ages of three and six -- sexual orientation is fixed by a complex process of family relations he called the Oedipal crisis.  A young boy begins by being attached to his mother.  As he gets older, he acknowledges his father’s priority in relation to mom, and substitutes girls and later women for mom as his primary sexual interest, and begins to identify with his father, from whom he learns what it means to be male.  A similar process, with complications, occurs in young girls.  Freud’s explanation is muddied by his use of the bizarre concepts of castration anxiety (the supposed fear boys have of losing their penis) and penis envy (the supposed desire girls have for growing one).

Like most psychologists, I don’t agree with too much of Freud’s theory.  But there is some sense in it:  I suggest that, by the age of 3 or 4, social learning has already informed the child of their gender, and has (for most) strongly reinforced identifying with the same sex parent.  The relation between mom and dad becomes the model for the child, and later sexual fantasy centers around the gender of the opposite sex parent.  This may be reinforced by the opposite sex parent playing the part of "role reactor," that is, by engaging in non-sexual flirtation with the child ("daddy’s girl" and "momma’s little man," and the like).

Freud once said that infants are "polymorphously perverse," by which he meant that they enjoy sensual pleasure in any form, from any source.  I agree with him on this.  It takes the imprinting process to focus our sensual, and later sexual, enjoyments on one gender or the other.  If that imprinting process is disturbed in some fashion from the culturally traditional one we just talked about, we may find the child tending towards sexual orientations other than the purely heterosexual.  This could happen in many ways:

        * The child may be encouraged to identify with the opposite sex by a parent or parents who act as if he or she in fact were the opposite sex, such as by dressing the child accordingly.
        * The child may more subtly be swayed by the overvaluing of the opposite sex by one or both of the parents.
        * There may not be one or another of the parents to identify with and learn the heterosexual roles, or a parent who can play role-reactor.
        * One or the other of the parents may themselves not demonstrate the usual heterosexual cultural stereotype, such as with feminine fathers and masculine mothers.
        * The parent of the opposite sex may be a far more powerful model than the one of the same sex, such as when a girl identifies with a charismatic father, or a boy with a charismatic mother.
        * A boy in a large family of girls, or a girl in a large family of boys may find themselves overwhelmed by role models of the opposite sex.

(Note that, while I use words like parents and mom and dad, the same roles in the family dynamic may be taken up by other relatives and close non-relatives.)

If we take both the genetic-hormonal explanation and the family-learning explanation into account, we may have the beginnings of an understanding of homosexuality (and heterosexuality):  A boy or girl who leans towards homosexuality biologically, and who has a family situation that encourages that leaning, is more likely to grow up gay or lesbian or bisexual.  One who has neither the biological tendency nor the family situation is more likely to grow up straight.

There is one thing I can say about homosexuality with great confidence: Being homosexual in no way makes you less of a human being, less worthy of respect, less deserving of dignity. Homosexuals have contributed enormously to humanity, from the great artists Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to present day entertainers like Lily Tomlin, Elton John, Freddy Mercury, and Ellen Degeneres, and a million more in between! Those who looked down on gays and lesbians are only revealing their own ignorance.

© Copyright 2002, C. George Boeree
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/sexualorientation.html
« Edit Terakhir: Mei 05, 2009, 11:08:02 AM oleh milmi »

Offline Mars

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #6 pada: Mei 05, 2009, 08:00:04 PM »
hayy, tolong dunk mr. biobio ama mr.milmi jawabannya ditranslat ke b. indonesia ???????????
o y, bukannya kalo ada perubahan kromosom itu ynag terjadi bukan hanya dari sifatnnya tapi juga dari bentuk fisik dan psikologei didirinya. eh... q mo nanya kenapa kita hormon estrogen dan testeron itu mesti seimbang kah jumlahnya atau engga ????????? ::)

Offline Muztank

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #7 pada: Mei 06, 2009, 01:29:01 PM »
wew..
itu ga mungkin seimbang..
klo cowo testoteron yang lebi bnyak...
klo cewe estrogennya & progesteron nya yg banyak...

Offline alf

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #8 pada: Agustus 09, 2009, 02:50:34 PM »
Ada juga kelainan kromosom seperti perempuan mestinya XX jadi X atau XXX, sedangkan pria XY bisa jadi XXY, dan XYY. Kemungkinan besar juga memainkan peranan tertentu dalam sifat, terutama kelainan yang gak lethal.

apa pengaruhnya jika sampai terjadi kelainan gen yang seperti itu???

Offline raisuien

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #9 pada: Agustus 09, 2009, 07:11:47 PM »
Sindroma XXX

Sindroma XXX (Sindroma Tripel X, Trisomi X, 47,XXX) terjadi jika seorang anak perempuan memiliki 3 kromosom X. Manusia memiliki 46 kromosom, 2 diantaranya adalah kromosom seks yang menunjukkan jenis kelaminnya. Dalam keadaan normal, wanita memiliki 2 kromosom X (digambarkan sebagai 46,XX), sedangkan pria memiliki 1 kromosom X dan 1 kromosom Y (digambarkan sebagai 46,XY). Pada sindroma XXX, di setiap sel-sel tubuh wanita terdapat 3 kromosom X (digambarkan sebagai 47,XXX).

Sekitar 1 diantara 1.000 bayi perempuan yang tampaknya normal, memiliki kelainan ini. Gejalanya sangat bervariasi. Beberapa penderita tidak menunjukkan gejala atau gejalanya sangat sedikit, sedangkan penderita lainnya memiliki gambaran yang lebih berat. Bayi seringkali tenang dan tidak aktif, Mereka mengalami perkembangan fungsi motorik, berbicara dan pematangan yang tertunda. Penundaan perkembangan ini sebaiknya diatasi dengan memberikan rangsangan fungsi mental, sosial dan motoriknya, baik di rumah maupun di klinik khusus. Jika terjadi gangguan perkembangan berbicara, perlu dilakukan terapi bicara.

Anak perempuan dengan 3 kromosom X cenderung memiliki tingkat kecerdasan yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan saudara laki-laki dan saudara perempuannya yang normal . Kadang sindroma ini menyebabkan kemandulan, meskipun beberapa penderita bisa melahirkan anak yang memiliki kromosom dan fisik yang normal. Beberapa penderita mengalami menopause dini.

Sindroma XYY

Pada sindroma XYY, seorang bayi laki-laki terlahir dengan kelebihan kromosom Y. Pria biasanya hanya memiliki 1 kromosom X dan 1 kromosom Y, digambarkan sebagai 46,XY. Pria dengan sindroma XYY memiliki 2 kromosom Y dan digambarkan sebagai 47,XYY. Kelainan ini ditemukan pada 1 diantara 1.000 pria.

PENYEBAB

Penyebab dari penyimpangan kromosom yang menyebabkan terbentuknya sindroma XYY tidak diketahui gejala pada saat lahir, bayi biasanya tampak normal, lahir dengan berat dan panjang badan yang normal, tanpa kelainan fisik dan organ seksualnya normal. Pada awal masa kanak-kanak, penderita memiliki kecepatan pertumbuhan yang pesat, rata-rata mereka memiliki tinggi badan 7 cm diatas normal. Postur tubuhnya normal, tetapi berat badannya relatif lebih rendah jika dibandingkan terhadap tinggi badannya.

Pada masa kanak-kanak, mereka lebih aktif dan cenderung mengalami penundaan kematangan mental, meskipun fisiknya berkembang secara normal dan tingkat kecerdasannya berada dalam kisaran normal. Di sekolah, mereka cenderung mengalami masalah belajar. Aktivitas yang tinggi dan gangguan belajar akan menimbulkan masalah di sekolah sehingga perlu diberikan pendidikan ekstra.

Perkembangan seksual fisiknya normal, dimana organ seksual dan ciri seksual sekundernya berkembang secara normal. Pubertas terjadi pada waktunya. Pria XYY tidak mandul, mereka memilki testis yang berukuran normal serta memiliki potensi dan gairah seksual yang normal.

DIAGNOSA

Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan analisa kromosom.

PENGOBATAN

Anak laki-laki dengan sindroma XYY seirngkali secara fisik lebih aktif daripada saudara kandungnya dan jika aktivitas ini ditanggapi dan disalurkan dengan baik, biasanya tidak akan menimbulkan masalah. Mereka cenderung mengalami keterlambatan dalam kematangan emosi dan cenderung mengalami kesulitan belajar di sekolah sehingga perlu dirangsang secara dini dan adekuat. Pria XYY memiliki keadaan hormon seks yang normal dan tidak perlu menjalani terapi hormonal.

Anak laki-laki XYY yang tumbuh di dalam lingkungan yang baik, dengan cinta, dukungan dan rangsangan yang mereka perlukan, tidak akan mengalami kelainan jiwa. Pria XYY yang tumbuh dalam lingkungan yang jelek, tanpa cinta, rangsangan dan dukungan, memiliki resiko mengalami kelainan jiwa dan gangguan dalam bersosialisasi; tetapi mereka tidak memiliki resiko menderita skizofrenia, kelainan manik-depresif maupun kelainan jiwa yang serius lainnya. Mereka bisa dibantu melalui penyuluhan dan pengobatan psikolog-psikiatri.

Offline ndy_88

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #10 pada: Agustus 13, 2009, 08:19:27 AM »
OUGh gitu toughh...

penjelasannya panjang bgt yahh

Offline paunk

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Re: hormon estrogen dan testosteron
« Jawab #11 pada: Agustus 25, 2009, 10:02:18 PM »
panjang banget mpe puyeng gw ni..ahahahah

 

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