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hitler biografi

Dimulai oleh deathspeel omega, September 14, 2010, 05:58:41 AM

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deathspeel omega

Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and, after 1934, also head of state as Führer und Reichskanzler, ruling the country as an absolute dictator.

A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the precursor of the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919 and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. He attempted a failed coup called the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in 1923, for which he was imprisoned. Following his imprisonment, in which he wrote his book, Mein Kampf, he gained support by promoting German nationalism, anti-semitism, anti-capitalism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He was appointed chancellor in 1933, and quickly transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideals of national socialism.

Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people; directing the resources of the state towards this goal. This included the rearmament of Germany, which culminated in 1939 when the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. In response, the United Kingdom and France declared war against Germany, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.[2]

Within three years, Germany and the Axis powers had occupied most of Europe, and most of Northern Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1945, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians,[3] including an estimated six million Jews targeted in the Holocaust and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma,[4] Poles, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents.

In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun and, to avoid capture by Soviet forces less than two days later, the two committed suicide[5] on 30 April 1945.

deathspeel omega

hitler SUICIDE

Suicide

Hitler took up residence in the Führerbunker on 16 January 1945, where he presided over a rapidly disintegrating Third Reich as the Allies advanced from both east and west. By late April, Soviet forces had entered Berlin and were battling their way to the centre of the city where the Chancellery was located. On 22 April, Hitler said defeat was imminent and that Germany would lose the war. He expressed his intent to kill himself and later asked physician Werner Haase to recommend a reliable method of suicide. Haase suggested combining a dose of cyanide with a gunshot to the head.

Hitler had a supply of cyanide capsules, which he had obtained through the SS. Meanwhile, on 28 April Hitler learned of Heinrich Himmler's attempt to independently negotiate a peace treaty. Hitler considered this treason and began to show signs of paranoia, expressing worries the cyanide capsules he had received through Himmler's SS were fake. He also learned of the execution of his ally Benito Mussolini, whose body was hung up and publicly beaten after death, and vowed not to share a similar fate. To verify the capsules' potency he ordered Dr. Haase to try them on his dog Blondi, and the animal died as a result.[4]

After midnight on 29 April,[5] Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in a map room within the bunker complex. Antony Beevor stated that after Hitler hosted a modest wedding breakfast with his new wife, Hitler then took secretary Traudl Junge to another room and dictated his last will and testament. He signed these documents at 04:00 and then retired to bed (some sources say Hitler dictated the last will and testament immediately before the wedding, but all sources agree on the timing of the signing).[6][7]

Hitler and Braun lived together as husband and wife in the bunker for fewer than 40 hours. Late in the morning of 30 April, with the Soviets less than 500 metres from the bunker, Hitler had a meeting with General Helmuth Weidling, commander of the Berlin Defence Area, who informed Hitler the Berlin garrison would probably run out of ammunition that night. Weidling asked Hitler for permission to break out, a request he had made unsuccessfully before. Hitler did not answer at first, and Weidling went back to his headquarters in the Bendlerblock, where at about 13:00 he got Hitler's permission to try a breakout that night.[8] Hitler, two secretaries, and his personal cook then had lunch, consisting of spaghetti with a light sauce, after which Hitler and Eva Braun said their personal farewells to members of the Führerbunker staff and fellow occupants, including the Goebbels family, Martin Bormann, the secretaries, and several military officers. At around 14:30 Adolf and Eva Hitler went into Hitler's personal study.

Some witnesses later reported hearing a loud gunshot at around 15:30. After waiting a few minutes, Hitler's valet, Heinz Linge, with Bormann at his side, opened the door to the small study. Linge later stated he immediately noted a scent of burnt almonds, a common observation made in the presence of prussic acid, the aqueous form of hydrogen cyanide. Hitler's SS adjutant, Sturmbannführer Otto Günsche, entered the study to inspect the bodies, which were found seated on a small sofa, Eva's to Hitler's left and slumped away from him. Günsche has since stated that Hitler "...sat...sunken over, with blood dripping out of his right temple. He had shot himself with his own pistol..."[9][10] The Walther PPK 7.65 mm pistol lay at Hitler's feet. According to Hitler's SS bodyguard, Oberscharführer Rochus Misch, Hitler's head was lying on the table in front of him.[11] Blood dripping from his temple and chin had made a large stain on the right arm of the sofa and was pooling on the floor/carpet. Eva's body had no visible physical wounds and Linge assumed she had poisoned herself.[12][13]

Günsche exited the study and announced that the Führer was dead. Immediately afterwards, several people in the bunker began smoking cigarettes (which had been forbidden, given Hitler's strong dislike for smoking).[14][15] Several witnesses said the two bodies were carried up to ground level and through the bunker's emergency exit to a small, bombed-out garden behind the Chancellery where they were doused with petrol and set alight by Linge and members of Hitler's personal SS bodyguard. Someone was heard to shout: 'Hurry upstairs, they're burning the boss!'[11] The SS guards and Linge later noted the fire did not completely destroy the corpses, but Soviet shelling of the bunker compound made further cremation attempts impossible and the remains were later covered up in a shallow bomb crater after 18:00.
Aftermath

Red Army troops began storming the Chancellery at approximately 23:00, about 7 hours and 30 minutes after Hitler's death. On 2 May the remains of Hitler, Braun and two dogs (thought to be Blondi and her offspring Wulf) were discovered in a shell crater by a unit of SMERSH which had orders to find Hitler's body.

The autopsy, contrary to the public reports released by Stalin in 1945, recorded both gunshot damage to Hitler's skull and glass shards in his jaw. However, Stalin was wary about believing his old nemesis was dead.[16][17] The remains of Hitler and Braun were repeatedly buried and exhumed by SMERSH during the unit's relocation from Berlin to a new facility in Magdeburg where they, along with the charred remains of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and those of his wife Magda Goebbels and their six children, were buried in an unmarked grave beneath a paved section of the front courtyard. The location was kept highly secret.[18]

In 1969 Soviet journalist Lev Bezymensky's book on the SMERSH autopsy report was published in the West but because of earlier disinformation attempts historians may have thought it untrustworthy.[19]

In 1970 the SMERSH facility, by then controlled by the KGB, was scheduled to be handed over to the East German government. Fearing that a known Hitler burial site might become a Neo-Nazi shrine, KGB director Yuri Andropov authorised an operation to destroy the remains. A Soviet KGB team was given detailed burial charts and on 4 April 1970 they secretly exhumed and thoroughly burned the ten bodies, after which the ashes were thrown into the Biederitz river, a tributary of the nearby Elbe river.[18][20]

deathspeel omega

dramatization

    * The Death of Adolf Hitler  is a British 1973 made-for-television production. Set in the Führerbunker it follows the last ten days of Hitler's life. Starring Frank Finlay in the title role who won a BAFTA award of Best Actor for his performance.
    * Hitler: The Last Ten Days is a 1973 feature film directed by Ennio De Concini and starring Sir Alec Guinness in the title role.
    * The Bunker was a 1981 made-for-television film directed by George Schaefer and based on the book The Bunker (1978) by James O'Donnell about the last months of the war and days in the Führerbunker from 17 January 1945 to 2 May 1945. Sir Anthony Hopkins won an Emmy Award for his portrayal of Hitler.
    * Der Untergang (The Downfall) is a 2004 German feature film largely set in and around the Führerbunker. Director Oliver Hirschbiegel reconstructed the look and atmosphere through eyewitness accounts, various survivor memoirs and other verified sources. It also carries an interview with Traudl Junge.

See also

deathspeel omega

See also

    * Fiction about the death of Hitler
    * Führer Headquarters
    * List of suicides
    * Nazi occultism

Notes

   1. ^ Joachimsthaler, Anton. The Last Days of Hitler - The Legends - The Evidence - The Truth, Brockhampton Press, 1999, pp 160-167.
   2. ^ Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, Penguin Books, 1962, pp 799-800.
   3. ^ Roper
   4. ^ Lehmann, Armin D., In Hitler's Bunker: A Boy Soldier's Eyewitness Account of the Führer's Last Days, Lyon's Press, 2004, ISBN 978-1-59228-578-5
   5. ^ Hitler's last days: "Hitler's will and marriage" "In the small hours of 28–29 April.."
   6. ^ Beevor References p. 343. Records the marriage as taking place before Hitler had dictated the last will and testament
   7. ^ Hitler's last days: "Hitler's will and marriage" on the website of MI5 using the sources available to Trevor Roper (a WWII MI5 agent) The Last Days of Hitler records the marriage as taking place after Hitler had dictated the last will and testament.
   8. ^ Beevor, References p.358
   9. ^ Fischer, Thomas. Soldiers of the Leibstandarte, J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. 2008, p 47.
  10. ^ Joachimsthaler, Anton. The Last Days of Hitler - The Legends - The Evidence - The Truth, pp 160-167.
  11. ^ a b "I was in Hitler's suicide bunker". BBC News. 3 September 2009. [pranala luar disembunyikan, sila masuk atau daftar.]. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  12. ^ Kinzer, Stephen, "The Day of Hitler's Death: Even Now, New Glimpses", New York Times, 4 May 1995, retrieved 11 May 2009
  13. ^ [pranala luar disembunyikan, sila masuk atau daftar.] (BBC Open University), OU Lecture 2005: Transcript, retrieved 11 May 2009
  14. ^ Mount, Ferdinand, Review: History: Inside Hitler's Bunker by Joachim Fest, Sunday Times, 18 April 2004, retrieved 11 May 2009
  15. ^ [pranala luar disembunyikan, sila masuk atau daftar.], The last days of Adolf Hitler, retrieved 11 May 2009
  16. ^ Kershaw, Ian, Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis, W. W. Norton & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-393-32252-1, pages 1038-39
  17. ^ Dolezal, Robert, Truth about History: How New Evidence Is Transforming the Story of the Past, Readers Digest, 2004, ISBN 0-7621-0523-2, page 185-6
  18. ^ a b [pranala luar disembunyikan, sila masuk atau daftar.], Battle of Hitler's skull prompts Russia to reveal all, 9 December 2009, retrieved 28 June 2010
  19. ^ JSTOR bibliographical note
  20. ^ [pranala luar disembunyikan, sila masuk atau daftar.], Official: KGB chief ordered Hitler's remains destroyed, 11 December 2009, retrieved 28 June 2010

References

    * Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin - The Downfall 1945. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-88695-5.
    * Bullock, Alan (1962). Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-140-13564-2.
    * Fischer, Thomas (2008). Soldiers Of the Leibstandarte. J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-921991-91-5.
    * Joachimsthaler, Anton (1996). The Last Days of Hitler - The Legends - The Evidence - The Truth, Brockhampton Press, ISBN 1-86019-902-X.
    * Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1947, reprint 1992). The Last Days of Hitler. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-81224-3.

Further reading
Main article: List of Adolf Hitler books

Books

    * Ryan, Cornelius, The Last Battle, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1966
    * Fest, Joachim. Inside Hitler's Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich, ISBN 0-374-13577-0
    * Joachimsthaler, Anton (2000). The Last Days of Hitler: Legend, Evidence and Truth, Cassell (reprint), ISBN 0-304-35453-8
    * Gardner, Dave. The Last of the Hitlers, BMM, Worcester, UK, 2001. ISBN 0-9541544-0-1
    * O'Donnell, James (2001). The Bunker. New York: Da Capo Press (reprint), ISBN 0-306-80958-3.
    * Petrova, Ada and Watson, Peter (1995). The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives, W W Norton & Co Inc. ISBN 0-393-03914-5
    * William L. Shirer (1959), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Simon & Schuster; ISBN 0-671-62420-2
    * Waite, Robert G.L. (1977). The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, New York: First DaCapo Press Edition, 1993, ISBN 0-306-80514-6.

Articles

    * Mollo, Andrew No.61 Special Edition: The Berlin Führerbunker: The thirteenth hole, website After the Battle, Battle of Britain International Ltd, 1988, London
    * Petrova, Ada, and Watson, Peter. The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives, Washington Post, 1995
    * Staff, Russia displays 'Hitler skull fragment', BBC, 26 April 2000.
    * Staff, Archived articles from 1945 relating to Hitler's death, The Times,

Monox D. I-Fly

Dari formatnya, kayaknya copy-paste Wikipedia ya? Sampai bagian "See also" ditulis juga...
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