Inflamasi ada dua macam. Inflamasi Akut dan Infalmasi Kronis. Panas (Calor) merupakan salah satu dari lima tanda peradangan(inflamasi) akut.
Beberapa hari lalu saya kebetulan dapet materi tentang inflamasi dan iseng-iseng mencari kenapa inflamasi akut dapat menyebabkan panas (Calor).
Buka-buka Wikipedia, saya ketemu ternyata panas karena inflamasi disebabkan oleh suatu zat yang kita sebut sebagai Pyrogen. Pyorogen ini dapat dihasilkan dari dalam tubuh (Endogen/Internal) dan dari luar tubuh (Eksogen/Eksternal).
Berikut Kopi-Paste nya dari wikipedia tentang Pyrogen:
A pyrogen is a substance that induces fever. These can be either internal (endogenous) or external (exogenous) to the body. The bacterial substance lipopolysaccharide (LPS), present in the cell wall of some bacteria, is an example of an exogenous pyrogen. Pyrogenicity can vary, as in extreme examples some bacterial pyrogens known as superantigens can cause rapid and dangerous fevers. Depyrogenation may be achieved through filtration, distillation, chromatography, or inactivation.
Cytokines (especially interleukin 1) are a part of the innate immune system, are produced by phagocytic cells, and cause the increase in the thermoregulatory set-point in the hypothalamus. Other examples of endogenous pyrogens are interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
These cytokine factors are released into general circulation where they migrate to the circumventricular organs of the brain due to easier absorption caused by the blood-brain barrier's reduced filtration action there. The cytokine factors then bind with endothelial receptors on vessel walls, or interact with local microglial cells. When these cytokine factors bind, the arachidonic acid pathway is then activated.
One model for the mechanism of fever caused by exogenous pyrogens includes LPS, which is a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria. An immunological protein called lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) binds to LPS. The LBP–LPS complex then binds to the CD14 receptor of a nearby macrophage. This binding results in the synthesis and release of various endogenous cytokine factors, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In other words, exogenous factors cause release of endogenous factors, which, in turn, activate the arachidonic acid pathway.
PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway. This pathway (as it relates to fever), is mediated by the enzymes phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E2 synthase. These enzymes ultimately mediate the synthesis and release of PGE2.
PGE2 is the ultimate mediator of the febrile response. The set-point temperature of the body will remain elevated until PGE2 is no longer present. PGE2 acts on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3). EP3-expressing neurons in the POA innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus in the medulla oblongata (rRPa) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus . Fever signals sent to the DMH and rRPa lead to stimulation of the sympathetic output system, which evokes non-shivering thermogenesis to produce body heat and skin vasoconstriction to decrease heat loss from the body surface. It is presumed that the innervation from the POA to the PVN mediates the neuroendocrine effects of fever through the pathway involving pituitary gland and various endocrine organs.
 Hypothalamus response
The brain ultimately orchestrates heat effector mechanisms via the autonomic nervous system. These may be:
* Increased heat production by increased muscle tone, shivering and hormones like epinephrine.
* Prevention of heat loss, such as vasoconstriction.
The autonomic nervous system may also activate brown adipose tissue to produce heat (non-exercise-associated thermogenesis, also known as non-shivering thermogenesis), but this seems mostly important for babies. Increased heart rate and vasoconstriction contribute to increased blood pressure in fever.