kalo disebut hanya untuk pengawet kosmetik sih ga bener. kedua bahan dipake juga di sediaan farmasi dan makanan. ini data safety masing-masing bahan pengawet dari handbook of pharmaceutical excipients:
Ingested benzoic acid is conjugated with glycine in the liver to yield hippuric acid, which is then excreted in the urine;care should be taken when administering benzoic acid to patients with chronic liver disease. Benzoic acid is a gastric irritant, and a mild irritant to the skin. It is also a mild irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes.Allergic reactions to benzoic acid have been reported, although a controlled study indicated that the incidence of urticaria in patients given benzoic acid is no greater than in those given a lactose placebo. It has been reported that asthmatics may become adversely affected by benzoic acid contained in some antiasthma drugs.
The WHO acceptable daily intake of benzoic acid and other benzoates, calculated as benzoic acid, has been set at up to 5 mg/kg body-weight. The minimum lethal human oral dose of benzoic acid is 500 mg/kg body-weight.
Methylparaben and other parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. Although parabens have also been used as preservatives in injections and ophthalmic preparations, they are now generally regarded as being unsuitable for these types of formulations owing to the irritant potential of the parabens. These experiences may depend on immune responses to enzymatically formed metabolites of the parabens in the skin.
Parabens are nonmutagenic, nonteratogenic, and noncarcinogenic. Sensitization to the parabens is rare, and these compounds do not exhibit significant levels of photocontact sensitization or phototoxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to parabens, generally of the delayed type and appearing as contact dermatitis, have been reported. However, given the widespread use of parabens as preservatives,
such reactions are relatively uncommon; the classification of parabens in some sources as high-rate sensitizers may be overstated.
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions following injection of preparations containing parabens have also been reported. Delayed-contact dermatitis occurs more frequently when parabens are used topically, but has also been reported to occur after oral administration.
Unexpectedly, preparations containing parabens may be used by patients who have reacted previously with contact dermatitis provided they are applied to another, unaffected, site. This has been termed the paraben paradox.
Concern has been expressed over the use of methylparaben in infant parenteral products because bilirubin binding may be affected, which is potentially hazardous in hyperbilirubinemic neonates.
The WHO has set an estimated total acceptable daily intake for methyl-, ethyl-, and propylparabens at up to 10 mg/kg bodyweight.
bahan tambahan lain yang seringkali jadi masalah adalah pewarna sintetik. jika di dalam sediaan farmasi pemakaiannya seringkali kecil karena terkait dosis bahan aktifnya. kalo di makanan bisa ada resiko overdosis karena bisa jadi konsumen makan banyak-banyak. pewarna sintetik mulai dibatasi banget di eropa karena diindikasikan bertanggung jawab pada insiden hiperaktivitas pada anak. di sini kita bisa lihat banyak banget makanan dengan pewarna, misalnya minuman dan snack. kami cenderung selektif memberi makanan kecil dan minuman buat anak. biasanya pilih yang tanpa pewarna, atau jika menggunakan pewarna pilih yang natural, misalnya curcumin, beta carotene, carmine, anato, chlorophyl, dan anthocyanin. pengawet pun sebisa mungkin dibatasi. MSG pun cuma dibatasi, tidak dilarang karena masih ada gunanya.