berarti kalo sputum udah berwarna kekuningan sampe ijo ada infeksi bakteri dan perlu bantuan antibiotik buat penanganannya.
SPUTUM COLOR IS THE KEY TO TREATING ACUTE COPD EXACERBATIONS
BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND--Just by examining the sputum, it is possible to tell which outpatients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a respiratory infection likely to require antibiotics. If the sputum is green or yellow, such an infection is probably present. But white or clear sputum suggests that a patient does not have a bacterial respiratory infection.
That was the conclusion of English researchers led by Robert A. Stockley, MD, who recently studied the relationship between sputum color and respiratory infection in 121 outpatients with acute COPD exacerbations. The presence of green or yellow sputum was 94.4% sensitive and 77.0% specific for microbiologic evidence of respiratory infection, the researchers found.
Furthermore, most of the patients with yellow or green sputum had complete symptom resolution and an improvement in their sputum color after antibiotic treatment. "On the other hand, nearly all of the patients with white sputum improved without antibiotics," said Dr. Stockley in an interview with PULMONARY REVIEWS.
Physicians can use this information to better manage COPD exacerbations, which are often treated with antibiotics regardless of whether infection has been proved. "That's unintelligent medicine," stressed Dr. Stockley, a Professor of Medicine at the University of Birmingham in England.
The practice is common, however, because of the difficulty in distinguishing patients with acute COPD who would benefit from antibiotic therapy. "Bacteria are present in the sputum of 30% to 40% of COPD patients who are well versus about 50% to 60% of those with exacerbations, so the two groups really aren't much different," Dr. Stockley explained. Also, the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in acute COPD is unclear, and medical guidelines vary in their recommendations as to when such therapy should be initiated.[2,3,4]
Sputum can be:
1. Bloody (often found in tuberculosis) (Hemoptysis)
2. Rusty colored - usually caused by pneumococcal bacteria (in pneumonia)
3. Purulent - containing pus. The color can provide hints as to effective treatment in Chronic Bronchitis Patients:
- a yellow-greenish (mucopurulent) color suggests that treatment with antibiotics can reduce symptoms. Green color is caused by Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase.
- a white, milky, or opaque (mucoid) appearance often means that antibiotics will be ineffective in treating symptoms.
4. Foamy white - may come from obstruction or even Edema