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Penulis Topik: Stonehenge Yang Misterius  (Dibaca 18715 kali)

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Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« pada: Desember 19, 2008, 02:18:57 AM »
Stonehenge, yang mungkin banyak diantara kita yang sudah mengetahuinya, pada kasarnya adalah tumpukan batu-batu besar di Inggris, yang disusun dengan pola aneh, dan sampai sekarang belum benar-benar terungkap cara pembangunan maupun fungsinya....
Silakan ditlihat-lihat ya tentang stonehenge ini...
Stonehenge merupakan suatu bangunan yang dibangun pada zaman Peunggu dan Neolitikum. Ia terletak berdekatan dengan Amesbury di Wiltshire, Inggris, sekitar 13 kilometer barat laut Salisbury. Stonehenge mencakup bangunan yang mengelilingi batu besar berdiri tegak dalam bulatan. Terdapat pertikaian mengenai usia sebenarnya lingkaran batu itu, tetapi kebanyakan arkeolog memperkirakan bahwa besar bangunan Stonehenge dibuat antara 2500 SM sampai 2000 SM. Bundaran tambak tanah dan parit membentuk fase pembanguan monumen Stonehenge yang lebih awal yang berasal dari waktu sekitar 3100 SM. Kompleks Stonehenge dibangun dalam beberapa fase pembangunan selama 2.000 tahun dan sepanjang kurun waktu itu aktivitas terus berjalan. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan ditemukannya sesosok mayat seorang Saxon yang dipancung dan dikebumikan di tugu peringatan tersebut, dan kemungkinan mayat tersebut berasal dari abad ke-7 M.


Stonehenge I
Monumen pertama terdiri dari kurungan tebing bulat dan parit berukuran 115 meter (320 kaki) diameter dan dengan satu pintu masuk di bagian timur laut. Fase ini adalah sekitar 3100 SM. Di bagian luar kawasan kurungan terdapat 59 lubang, dikenal sebagai lubang Aubrey sebagai penghargaan untuk John Aubrey, arkeolog abad ketujuh belas yang merupakan orang pertama yang mengenal lubang-lubang tersebut. Dua puluh lima dari lubang Aubrey diketahui mempunyai pemakaman abu bertanggal dua abad sesudah pembangunan Stonehenge. Tiga puluh abu mayat diletakkan di dalam parit kawasan kurungan dan bagian lain dalam kawasan Stonehenge. Tembikar Neolitikum Akhir telah ditemukan bersama-sama ini memberikan bukti tanggal. Sebuah batu tunggal monolit besar yang tidak dilicinkan dikenal sebagai 'Batu Tumit' (Heel Stone) terletak di luar pintu masuk.


Stonehenge II
Bukti fase kedua tidak lagi kelihatan. Bagaimanapun bukti dari beberapa lubang tiang dari waktu masa ini membuktikan terdapatnya beberapa bangunan kayu yang dibangun dalam kawasan lingkaran sekitar awal millennium ketiga SM. Beberapa kesan papan yang didapati diletakkan pada pintu masuk. Fase ini sama dengan tempat Woodhenge yang terletak berdekatan.


Stonehenge IIIa
Ekskavasi arkeologi menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 2600 SM, dua lengkungan bulan sabit dibuat dari lubang (dikenal sebagai lubang Q dan R) yang digali di tengah-tengan lokasi. Lubang tersebut mengandung 80 batu biru tegak yang dibawa dari bukit Preseli, 250 batu di Wales. Batu-batu tersebut dibentuk menjadi tiang dengan teliti, kebanyakan terdiri dari batu jenis dolerite bertanda tetapi turut termasuk contoh batu rhyolite, tufa gunung berapi, dan myolite dan seberat 4 ton. Pintu masuk dilebarkan pada masa ini menjadikannya selaras dengan arah matahari naik pertengahan musim panas dan matahari terbenam pertengahan musim sejuk masa tersebut. Monumen tersebut ditinggalkan tanpa disiapkan, sementara batu biru kelihatannya dipindah dan lubang Q dan R ditutup. Ini kemungkinan dilakukan pada masa fase Stonehenge IIIb. Monumen ini kelihatannya melebihi tempat di Avebury dari segi kepentingannya pada akhir masa ini dan Amesbury Archer, dijumpai pada tahun 2002 tiga batu ke selatan, membayangkan bagaimana Stonehenge kelihatan pada masa ini. Stonehenge IIIa dikatakan dibangun oleh orang Beaker

Stonehenge IIIb
Pada aktivitas fase berikutnya pada akhir millennium ketiga 74 SM mendapati batu Sarsen yang besar dibawa dari kueri 20 batu di utara di lokasi Marlborough Downs. Batu-batu tersebut dikemaskan dan dibentuk dengan sambungan pasak dan ruas sebelum 30 didirikan membentuk bulatan tiang batu berukuran 30 meter diameter dengan 29 atap batu (lintel) di atas. Setiap bongkah batu seberat 25 ton dan jelas dibentuk dengan tujuan mengagumkan jika siap.
Batu orthostat lebar sedikit di bagian atas agar memberikan gambaran ia kelihatan lurus dari bawah ke atas sementara batu alang melengkung sedikit untuk menyambung gambaran bundar monumen lebih awal. Di dalam bulatan ini terletak lima trilithon batu sarsen diproses dan disusun dalam bentuk ladam. Batu besar ini, sepuluh menegak dan lima batu alang, dengan berat sehingga 50 tan setiap satu yang disambungkan dengan sambungan rumit. Ukiran pisau belati dan kepala kapak terdapat di sarsen. Dalam masa ini, jalan sepanjang 500 meter dibangun, menuju ke arah timur laut dari pintu masuk dan mengandung dua pasang tambak selaras yang berparit di tengahnya. Akhir sekali dua batu portal besar dipasangkan di pintu masuk yang kini hanya tinggal satu, Batu Penyembelihan (Slaughter Stone) 4,9 meter (16 kaki) panjang. Fase yang bercita-cita tinggi ini dipercayai hasil kerja kebudayaan Wessex Zaman Perunggu awal, sekitar 2000 SM.

Stonehenge IIIc
Selepasnya pada Zaman Perunggu, batu biru kelihatannya telah ditegakkan semula, dalam bulatan antara dua tiang sarsen dan juga dalam bentuk ladam ditengah, mengikuti tata rajah layout sarsen. Walaupun ia kelihatannya satu fasa kerja yang menakjubkan, pembinaan Stonehenge IIIc dibina kurang teliti berbanding Stonehenge IIIb, batu biru yang ditegakkan kelihatannya mempunyai pondasi yang tidak kokoh dan mulai tumbang. Salah satu dari batu yang tumbang telah diberi nama yang kurang tepat sebagai Batu Penyembahan (Altar Stone). Dua bulatan lubang juga digali di luar bulatan batu yang dikenal sebagai lubang Y dan Z. Lubang-lubang ini tidak pernah diisi dengan batu dan pembangunan lokasi peringatan ini kelihatannya terbiarkan sekitar 1500 SM.

Stonehenge IV
Sekitar 1100 SM, jalan raya (Avenue) disambung sejauh lebih dari dua batu sampai ke Sungai Avon walaupun tidak jelas siapakah yang terlibat dalam kerja pembangunan tambahan ini.
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SEBAGAI MAKAM?
« Jawab #1 pada: Desember 19, 2008, 02:22:40 AM »
Ini berita yang mengatakan bahwa stonehenge adalah makam kuno..

Jum'at, 02 Februari 2007 | 01:22 WIB
TEMPO Interaktif, Jakarta:
WASHINGTON - Stonehenge pernah dianggap sebagai tempat pendaratan extraterrestrial, bahkan beberapa orang mengaku melihat UFO di tempat itu. Situs yang dianggap tempat keramat bagi penganut agama Celtic kuno itu konon dibangun oleh penyihir Merlin, yang memindahkannya secara gaib dari Gunung Killaraus di Irlandia. Ada pula yang percaya bangunan itu adalah buatan setan.
Namun, penemuan sejumlah arkeolog Inggris belum lama ini menunjukkan bangunan misterius yang dinominasikan menjadi tujuh keajaiban dunia baru itu dibangun oleh sekelompok orang yang tinggal di dekat situs tersebut.
Para arkeolog itu menemukan satu kampung yang hanya terdiri atas beberapa rumah kecil dan kemungkinan merupakan tempat tinggal para kuli bangunan yang mendirikan monumen megalitik terbesar di Inggris Selatan itu. Mereka menemukan perkampungan ini ketika tengah mempelajari Stonehenge.
Penggalian di dekat Dataran Salisbury itu menemukan delapan buah rumah, dengan perapian di tengah rumah. Mike Parker Pearson, ilmuwan dari Sheffield University, Inggris, memperkirakan masih ada 25 rumah lainnya yang terpendam setelah menggunakan perlengkapan survei geofisika.
Perumahan kuno itu terletak di sebuah situs yang disebut Dinding Durrington, hampir 3,2 kilometer dari Stonehenge. Di sana juga terdapat versi kayu dari lingkaran batu Stonehenge.
Penghitungan waktu karbon menunjukkan kampung itu berasal dari 2600 sebelum Masehi, hampir bersamaan dengan periode pembangunan Stonehenge. Parker Pearson menyatakan Piramida Giza di Mesir juga dibangun pada masa yang sama.
Namun, sejumlah arkeolog meragukan usia situs itu karena Stonehenge telah beberapa kali direnovasi. Materi arkeologi itu pernah digali dan dipendam lagi dalam berbagai riset, sehingga sulit menentukan kapan konstruksi aslinya dibangun.
Parker Pearson dan tim risetnya yakin adanya kaitan antara desa di Durrington dan Stonehenge. Julian Thomas, arkeolog dari Manchester University, menyatakan, baik Stonehenge maupun Dinding Durrington memiliki jalan raya yang menghubungkan keduanya ke Sungai Avon. Hal ini mengindikasikan adanya pola pergerakan antara kedua situs. "Menunjukkan tempat itu memiliki arti yang amat penting," kata Thomas.
Para ilmuwan memperkirakan Dinding Durrington adalah tempat pemukiman dan Stonehenge adalah kuburan serta semacam tugu peringatan karena di situ ditemukan sisa jenazah yang dibakar.
Arkeolog menduga perkampungan yang cukup besar itu didiami secara musiman, sebagai lokasi pesta ritual dan upacara pemakaman. Mereka percaya Stonehenge dan Durrington membentuk kompleks religius yang dipakai untuk ritual pemakaman. Pada masa itu, kampung itu ada kemungkinan dihuni ratusan orang yang menjadikannya sebagai desa Neolitikum terbesar yang pernah ditemukan di Inggris.
Rumah-rumah kayu yang ditemukan di situs baru itu berbentuk kubus dan setiap sisi panjangnya 5 meter, terbuat dari kayu dan berlantai tanah liat. Bentuk rumah itu hampir identik dengan rumah batu yang dibangun di Skara Brae, Kepulauan Orkney lepas pantai Skotlandia.
Mereka juga menemukan indikasi pola penataan ruang, yaitu kerangka tempat tidur diletakkan sepanjang sisi dinding dan sebuah lemari atau tempat penyimpanan ditaruh di dinding yang berhadapan dengan pintu. "Di bekas rumah, kami menggali kerangka lantai kotak tempat tidur dan lemari pakaian atau lemari makan," ujar Parker Pearson.
Peralatan dari batu, tulang binatang, mata panah, dan artefak lainnya juga ditemukan di desa purba itu. "Inilah situs terkaya yang penuh dengan sampah dari periode itu di Inggris," kata Pearson. "Kami tidak pernah melihat begitu banyak pecah belah, tulang binatang, dan batu api."
Tulang binatang yang ditemukan di rumah itu adalah sisa pesta di pertengahan musim dingin. Orang-orang dari berbagai wilayah mendatangi kampung itu untuk makan besar dan tulang-tulangnya dibuang ke lantai. "Sampahnya bukanlah sampah rumah tangga biasa," ujarnya. "Tidak ada perlengkapan untuk membersihkan kulit binatang dan tak ada bukti pemrosesan hasil panen. Tulang yang masih separuh dimakan sudah dibuang, suatu kebiasaan pesta besar."
Sisa tulang babi yang ditemukan menunjukkan binatang itu baru berusia sembilan bulan ketika disembelih, yang kemungkinan besar menandai dilaksanakannya festival pertengahan musim dingin.
Batu gantung Stonehenge memang diorientasikan menghadap ke arah matahari terbit pertengahan musim panas dan matahari terbenam di pertengahan musim dingin. Sedangkan lingkaran kayu di Dinding Durrington menghadap ke arah sebaliknya, yaitu matahari terbit pertengahan musim dingin dan matahari terbenam musim panas.
Dua dari kelompok rumah itu terpisah dari rumah lainnya dan mungkin merupakan kediaman para pemimpin komunitas itu. Atau, rumah pemujaan yang dipakai untuk mengadakan ritual keagamaan. Di rumah temuan Thomas itu tak banyak dijumpai puing ataupun sampah rumah tangga seperti di rumah lainnya.
Temuan itu menunjukkan Durrington sebagai "tempat bagi orang yang hidup," kata Pearson. Sebaliknya, tak ada orang yang pernah tinggal di lingkaran batu di Stonehenge, makam terbesar di Inggris pada saat itu. Stonehenge diperkirakan menjadi tempat peristirahatan terakhir bagi 250 jenazah yang dikremasi.

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #2 pada: Desember 19, 2008, 02:34:04 AM »
Ini keren artikelnya, lengkap banget, dari www.fortunecity.com...

As I have hinted, there are many myths and legends about Stonehenge. Travelers and locals alike are responsible for these strange and unique tales. In the past, people have attributed the building of this great megalith to the Danes, Romans, Saxons, Greeks, Atlanteans, Egyptians, Phoenicians Celts, and even King Aurelius Ambrosious and Merlin. In one legend, dancing giants turned into stone, resulting in the circular position of the stones. Some people today connect Stonehenge with UFO's and aliens, pointing out that crop circles and ley lines continually appear in close vicinity to it.
Many past archeologists believed that the Druids, the high priests of the Celts, constructed it for sacrificial ceremonies. They believed that only such a mysterious and mystical group such as the Druids could build an ancient temple so magnificent. It was John Aubrey, a Stonehenge antiquary (c. 1660), who first linked Stonehenge to the Druids. Dr. William Stukeley, another antiquary, also claimed the Druids were Stonehenge's architects. A century later than Aubrey, he became so involved in the study of this religion that he himself became a Druid. He was most instrumental in this theory and its popularization.
In recent years, however, researchers have proven this age-old theory linking Stonehenge's construction to the Druids impossible. Due to modern dating techniques, scientists have discovered that its builders completed Stonehenge over a thousand years before the Celts ever inhabited this region ("Stonehenge" Encyclopedia Americana, NPA), eliminating them from the possibilities. It has been verified, though, that the Druids did use Stonehenge occasionally as a temple of worship and sacrifice when they moved into the region, even though they typically worshipped in marshes and forests. Modern Druids, formally named the Grand Lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids, still congregate at Stonehenge on the midsummer solstice, clad in white robes and hoods. As recently as 1905, the Druids initiated 258 novices inside these stones on midsummer solstice (National Geographic Society, 97). Today, for fear of its desecration, its caretakers shut off public access on midsummer's eve, and are on 24-hour guard year round. Other theories and myths abound. Many sources site the devil, nonetheless, as a possible architect of Stonehenge. It is said that an old woman living in Ireland had the stones in her backyard. Satan discovered them and wanted them for his own. He quickly devised a way of stealing them. Dressing as a gentleman, the devil were to visit the old lady, asking if the monument was for sale. When she appeared reluctant to sell such a magnificent structure, he showed her a large bag of golden coins. He told her that she could have all the gold she could count in the time it took to move the stones. Believing that he could never move such large stones before she finished counting the coins, she agreed readily. Immediately he magically transported them to Salisbuly Plain in England, where they stand today. The old lady could not count any gold in that short amount of time, so the greedy devil kept it all. Back in Salisbury, an elderly priest overheard the devil bragging that no one would ever be able to tell how many stones his prize consisted of. Angered by the devil's boasting, the wise and strong priest said that he could. According to legend, he guessed exactly right. The devil became so enraged that he threw one of the large stones at the priest. The menhir hit the priest's heel, but the priest was so strong that his heel dented the stone (Roop, 33). Obviously, this tale is purely myth. But oddly enough, there is the imprint of a foot in the stone that archaeologists today call the Heel stone, and it stands outside the circle. Some books even refer to the Heel Stone as the Friar's Heel. Another legend boasts that Merlin built Stonehenge with his magic at the command of King Aureoles Ambrosias. According to legend, in 450 AD, there was a very bloody war on Salisbury Plain between the British and the Saxons, who Hengeset lead. The Saxons massacred three hundred English soldiers and buried them on Salisbury Plain. Aureoles Ambrosias, Britain's wise ruler, desired a monument to the slain soldiers. When he asked Merlin for ideas, he suggested moving Ireland's Giant's Ring stone circle to Britain. Since the Giant's Ring was such a magnificent structure, King Ambrosias agreed. When arriving in Ireland, they discovered that it was much larger than they could carry. So, at King Ambrosia's command, Merlin magically dismantled the stone circle and spirited it away to its new home in Salisbury Plain, around the mass grave of the slaughtered noblemen. It also is said that Kings Uther, Constantine, and King Ambrosias himself are buried there (Haskel, 3). Apart from the local myths and lore, we have a good idea who the builders really are. As previously stated, most scientists agree on the modern theory that three tribes built Stonehenge at three separate times. The first peoples to work on the site were Neolithic agrarians, in approximately 3000 B.C (Schreibir, 28). Archaeologists named them the Windmill Hill people after one of their earthworks on Windmill Hill, which is near Stonehenge. The Windmill Hill people were a blend of the local peoples, from whom the name comes, and Neolithic tribe members from Eastern England. The Neolithic tribe members brought along with them a worship and reverence for circles and symmetry. Together, they were one of the first semi-nomadic hunting and gathering groups with an agricultural economy. The Windmill Hill peoples had collective burials in large stone-encased tombs, some of which are very near Stonehenge. They built large circular furrows, or hill-top enclosures, dug around a mound. Most of their burial mounds point east-west. They raised cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, grew wheat and mined flint. The second peoples on the site invaded Salisbury Plain around 2000 BC (Hawkins,36). They were the Beaker People, or Beaker Folk, who came from Europe at the end of the Neolithic Period. Their name comes from one of their ancient traditions. They would bury beakers, or pottery drinking cups, with their dead. They did not bury their dead in mass graves, but showed more reverence for death, also a sign of cultural advancement. They buried their dead in small round graves marked by mounds called tumuli. The Beaker People were more belligerent, or warlike, in nature than most tribes of their time, archaeologists believe, because they buried their dead with more weapons, such as daggers and battle axes. Highly organized and industrious, t he Beaker Folk was from a new arising economy in Europe and around England. The Beaker Folk had a chieftain system. They began using metal implements and living in a more communal fashion. Scientists believe they were sun worshipers who aligned Stonehenge more exactly with certain important sun events, such as mid summer and winter solstices. They might have worshipped the color blue, possibly the reason they used bluestones. They were "highly organized, skilled in many crafts, and able to work with sophisticated mathematical concepts" (Roop, 77). The third and final peoples at the Stonehenge site are the Wessex Peoples, who arrived around 1500 BC (Schrieber, 30), at the height of the Bronze Age. These people were one of the most advanced cultures outside the Mediterranean during this period. Since their tribal base sat where ridgeways, or ancient roads, met, they became skillful and well-organized traders, controlling trade routes throughout Southern Britain. Though this tribe saw great wealth, it was concentrated in just a few members of the society. It is possible that they were responsible for the bronze dagger carving recently found on one of the large sarsen stones. The strange thing about these peoples is their intelligence. They used greater precision in their calculations and construction than anyone thought these ancient peoples were capable.

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #3 pada: Desember 19, 2008, 02:36:03 AM »
Ini cara bangun stonehenge... Tapi gak mudeng nih,,,ga ada gambarnya sih...temen2 yg ngerti tolong dibahas ya...bung syx mungkin?

Stonehenge was built over a five hundred year period. Though there were three major cultural shifts, its basic design remained the same. This stone construction is "highly accurate for the period" and "remarkable evidence of the knowledge and skills of Stonehenge's makers" ("GBC-Stonehenge", 1). Building Stonehenge took much human power and required high organizational skills.

Stonehenge I was a relatively simple structure compared to how we see it today. The Stone Age builders began in approximately 3100 BC and ended in about 2300 BC (Roop, 64). Stonehenge I was a circular henge with an entrance to the North East enclosing, perhaps, a small wooden building. A tall wooden archway set 65 feet away from the entrance. The fifty-six evenly spaced holes, or Aubrey holes, named after their discoverer, surrounded the wooden building, concentric with the ditch and bank. Their builders filled them in almost immediately after they dug them (much later in Stonehenge's history they were filled with cremated human remains). At the entrance, there was a pair of stones, only one remaining now. It is called the Slaughter Stone. Outside the bank, lined up with the North East entrance, was a large sarsen stone. Called the Heel Stone, it is 16 feet (4.9m) tall and made of a type sandstone called sarsen ("Stonehenge" Encyclopedia Americana, 20).

The Windmill Hill people used shovels and picks made of the shoulder blades of oxen, wood, and antlers of red deer to build the henge. Then they loaded the dirt into baskets and carried it away. Archaeologists found those ancient tools at various places on the site. Modern scientists recreated the process and found the prehistoric instruments to work almost as well as modern tools. The ditch is 320 feet (91 meters) in diameter, six feet (1.8 meters) high and wide (Schreiber, 28). Erosion filled some of the ditch and wore down the two rings on either side. They made an entrance in the henge on the North East side, marked by a pair of stones. The builders constructed a sixty-five foot wooden gate (Roop, 66).

Three feet deep and three feet wide, the Windmill Hill people could have used the Aubrey Holes to hold wooden posts temporarily or to serve in religious ceremonies. They were filled in almost immediately after they were dug. Antiquary John Aubrey discovered them in the 17th century. Previously invisible on the surface, cement posts today mark them. At 16-foot intervals, they are straight sided at flat-bottomed. (National Geographic Society, 98) Their exact use for the Windmill Hill people remains blanketed in mystery, as a great deal of things about Stonehenge are.

The Heel Stone weighs several tons. It sits fifty feet away from the ditch and was at one time part of a pair, one foot away from its mate. It is sixteen feet (4.9 meters) tall and made of sarsen stone ("Stonehenge" Encyclopedia Americana, NPA). This tilted boulder is a natural stone. Also called the Helestone or Friar's Heel, it came from a quarry in Marlborough Downs. Other than the observation that the sun rises over it on summer solstice, scientists are not sure of its use. Whether this was intentional or not is unknown. Some archaeologists say that it would be near impossible to place the stone in line with the midsummer sun purely by accident. Sources argue on the time the builders erected the pair of Heel Stones, some attributing it to Stonehenge I, and others to Stonehenge II.

During Stonehenge II people believed that a great deal of the sun-moon alignment occurred. Begun in 2150 BC by the Beaker Peoples (Roop, 66), this period was also when the builders brought many of the larger stones to Salisbury Plain and placed them in circles at the center of the earthwork.

The Beaker Peoples save the widening of the entrance and its location shifted a bit to match more exactly the solstice sunrise. They built a dirt road, called the Avenue, from the entrance, possibly to carry stones to the site or for ceremonial purposes. The Avenue had two parallel banks seventy feet apart on each side. The banks continue for approximately 500 feet ("Stonehenge", 2). Later in this period it extended to the River Avon, 2 miles (3.22 kilometers) away (Atkinson, 56). The Avenue runs North East, directly towards the rising midsummer sun.

They placed two partial circles of bluestones in the center of the circle, concentric to each other. The Beaker Folk quarried the eighty bluestones, weighing four tons each, from a place called Mount Prescelly. This wind-blown, dome shaped landmark for sailors on the Irish Sea was probably a sacred place for the Beaker Peoples. Mt. Prescelly might have been like "Mt. Olympus in the traditions of the Greeks." (Roops 69). Such bluestones, whose name comes from their blue, sparkling color, can be found only at this ancient Welsh quarry. Mt. Prescelly is located on the South West tip of Wales, about three hundred miles (438 kilometers) from Stonehenge (Schreiber, 29). The bluestones are tall flat columns of natural stone.

Since the bluestone quarry was so far away, this poses another question: How did the Beaker Folk transport them to Salisbury Plain? Scientists think they know the answer. The Beaker People first loaded the bluestones onto sledges with wooden runners on the bottom. Then they drug the sledges over a long line of rounded logs. Carried by roller and sledge across land to the headwaters of Milford Haven, they then floated on rafts to what is today Frome in Somerset. From there the Beaker peoples hauled the stones over land to Warminster in Wiltshire. Floating down the River Wylye, they went up the Salisbury Avon to West Arnesbury. The workers then had their last stretch to go, the drag long to Stonehenge.

Some of the mysterious components of Stonehenge II are the Q and R holes. The Q holes make an eighty-six foot (26.2m) diameter circle, and the R holes make a seventy-four foot (22.5m) circle inside them. No one really knows what their purpose was, though archaeologists think they held approximately thirty-eight bluestones, many of which builders used for later construction ("Stonehenge" Encyclopedia Americana, WPA).

Equally mysterious is the abrupt stop to construction around 2000 BC The bluestones were not even in all of their holes yet. They also removed some stones and filled in their holes. Archaeologists puzzle over what could have caused such an organized and wealthy tribe to terminate their project so quickly. Some guess that a disease swept the workers, leaving few to carry on the work. Others suppose that other tribes (such as the Wessex) drove them away, the Beaker Peoples or moved in seek of food (Roop, 69). We will probably never know the answer.

Sources dubbed Stonehenge III as the most fantastic of all construction periods. It is responsible for the most famous stones, the sarsen trilithon horseshoe and circle. Trilithons are two stone posts with a cap, or lintel, connecting the two. Begun in approximately 2000 BC (Robbins, 179), Stonehenge III was the most advanced of all stages, requiring the most human power.

The sarsen stones, made of a type of sandstone harder than granite, weigh from 25 to 50 tons each (Robbins, 179). They are 7 feet (2. lm) wide and 13 feet (4m) ("Stonehenge" Encyclopedia Americana, NPA) to 21 feet (6.4m) high on average (Schreiber, 30). The trilithons have "integral mortise and tendon joints" ("GBC-Stonehenge", 2). The Wessex people showed very precise measurements on keeping the stones even. They cut the lintels at a slight curve to make the circle. That would have taken careful and wise judgment and engineering.

These heavy stones came from a place called Marlborough Downs near Avebury in Northwiltshire, twenty miles north of Stonehenge (Stonehenge, 2). They transported the using rollers and sledges like their predecessors. With such heavy stones, it took five hundred individuals to pull one stone, with another one hundred to lay heavy rollers in front of the stone. It's steepest part, Redhorn Hill, took even more persons. One theory suggests that the Wessex peoples only transported stones when there was ice on the ground so the stones would just slide along. Once at Stonehenge, they prepared the stones for their pre-dug holes. The builders dressed them for their lintels and trimmed and pointed their ends. Levers made the stone rise until gravity slid it the rest of the way into the hole. At a 30-degree angle to the ground, the Wessex workers pulled on ropes from the opposite side, raising it to upright position. Workers quickly filled the hole at the stone's base with small, round packing stones. They then lowered the lintels into place ("Stonehenge", NPA). Outside this circle is an outer ring of sarsen trilithons, called the sarsen circle, consisting of 30 smaller stones with lintels (Roop, 71). They used the same process on the outer ring.

Inside the sarsen circle, the Wessex erected a small oval of twenty bluestones around the Altar Stone, a flat, blue-green, bluestone. Two more sets of mysterious holes, the Y and Z holes, appeared during Stonehenge III. The Y holes have 30 holes, 3 feet deep, about thirty-five feet from the sarsen circle. The Z holes are 29 holes, 3 feet, five inches deep (Hawkins, 57). Irregularly spaced, they usually form a rectangular shape. Never holding stones, they filled in naturally. There is a single blue-stone fragment in each of the holes, making them all the more mysterious.


Offline kn8_satria

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #4 pada: Desember 19, 2008, 04:43:12 AM »
Yoi cuyy...panjang amirrr... ad hubungannya dgn patung kepala yang ad di pasifik g???
Segalanya berawal dari ketiadaan..

Offline biobio

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #5 pada: Desember 19, 2008, 05:14:19 AM »
Yoi cuyy...panjang amirrr... ad hubungannya dgn patung kepala yang ad di pasifik g???
patung kepala...maksud lo?

Offline nurR

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #6 pada: Desember 22, 2008, 12:16:13 AM »
keren yah...    :-\ :-\
bentar......
orang goblok lagi belajar.

Offline biobio

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #7 pada: Desember 22, 2008, 12:38:13 AM »
keren yah...    :-\ :-\
jangan ngejunk donk...eh,gw sndri ngejunk.wkwkwk

Offline skuler

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #8 pada: April 24, 2009, 08:27:47 PM »
@ kn8: patung apaan si?
"Who controls the present now controls the past. Who controls the past now controls the future.”-- RATM, 1999.

Offline The Houw Liong

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #9 pada: April 24, 2009, 11:46:21 PM »
Kontribusi ilmiah yang penting dari Stonehenge ialah sbb.ini.

Susunan batu tsb. bisa mengikuti bayangan yang ditimbulkan oleh pergerakan matahari, sehingga dapat menentukan kapan awal musim dan akhir musim dan analisis yang mendalam memungkinkan terbangunnya  model konseptual  sistem tata surya.
HouwLiong

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #10 pada: April 24, 2009, 11:51:23 PM »
naaah.. ptanyaan slanjutnya, bgmanakah orang2 jadul tsbut mengerti ilmu astronomi yg memerlukan landasan logika matematika dan fisika yg kompleks jauh sebelum ada filsuf2 yunani yg menjelaskannya?

Offline biobio

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #11 pada: April 26, 2009, 07:57:34 AM »
naaah.. ptanyaan slanjutnya, bgmanakah orang2 jadul tsbut mengerti ilmu astronomi yg memerlukan landasan logika matematika dan fisika yg kompleks jauh sebelum ada filsuf2 yunani yg menjelaskannya?
pasti orang yang ke masa lampau pake mesin waktu!

Offline skuler

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #12 pada: Mei 11, 2009, 06:49:32 AM »
pasti orang yang ke masa lampau pake mesin waktu!

BYuuuuhhh... jenius banget lu bro...

cuman itu penjelasan logis satu2nya.... tidak mungkin tidak....

Offline luth

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #13 pada: Mei 11, 2009, 09:09:24 AM »
BYuuuuhhh... jenius banget lu bro...

cuman itu penjelasan logis satu2nya.... tidak mungkin tidak....
wah dari dulu saya paling tidak percaya ada mesin waktu,,,
pasti ada penjelasan lain,,
tp gw jg kaga tau ;D ;D ;D
sebodoh-bodohnya sifat adalah sombong

Offline kacoa

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Re: Stonehenge Yang Misterius
« Jawab #14 pada: Mei 18, 2009, 01:04:42 AM »
Ini tidak dipungkiri bahwa orang jaman doeloe lebih pintar dari jaman sekarang, orang jaman doeloe ilmu tentang astronomi dll paham banget pintar lah, teknologi spiritual orang jaman doeloe gitoe loh...

 

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